Exploring learning


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Considering that my posts are about learning and technology I thought it would be useful to reflect on the concept of learning. Learning can be defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught. Gross defines it has also been defined as the process of acquiring new understandingknowledgebehavioursskillsvalues, attitudes, and preferences. This article lists the following types of learning:


·      Non-associative learning which is a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus

·      Active learning where a person takes control of their learning experience

·      Associative learning where someone learns an association between two stimuli or events

·      Operant conditioning where a reward or punishment is given after a particular behaviour

·      Classical conditioning which involves repeatedly paring an unconditional stimulus with another stimulus

·      Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behaviour of others

·      Imprinting is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour

·      Play for example a cat will play with a ball to give them experience with catching prey

·      Enculturation where people learn values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in their surrounding culture

·      Episodic learning which is a change in behaviour that occurs as a result of an event

·      Multimedia learning where audio and visual stimuli are used to learn information

·      E-learning and augmented learning such as use of mobile devices or the Internet

·      Role learning is memorising information so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard

·      Meaningful learning is the idea that learned knowledge is understood to the extent that it relates to other knowledge

·      Evidence-based learning is the use of evidence to accelerate learning

·      Formal learning which takes place in schools or colleges

·      Non-formal learning is learning outside the formal learning system

·      Informal learning which may occur through the experience of day to day situations

·      Tangential learning is where people self-educate

·      Dialogic learning which is based on dialogue

·      Incidental learning where teaching is not planned by the teacher or student but occurs as a by-product of another activity



Richard Gross, Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour 6E, Hachette UK, ISBN 978-1-4441-6436-7.




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