Review: Lockyer et al., 2008

Agostinho, S. (2008), Learning design representations to document, model and share teaching practice

Pg. 1 Academics are presented with many choices in how they can design and deliver their courses.

Pg. 3 six learning design representations; E2ML, IMS LD, Learning Activity Management System (LAMS), Learning Design Visual Sequence (LDVS), LDLite and Patterns

Pg.4  Learning design as a process of designing learning experiences and as a product ie outcome or artefact of the design process

A learning design can represent different levels of granularity – from a whole course down to an individual learning activity

E2ML three aspects: 1. Goal definition, 2. Action diagram, 3. Overview diagram

IMS LD documents the learning design in computer readable format

LAMS software which allows teachers to design and implement online learning activities – sequence of activities as a flowchart

LDVS A learning design consists of 3 parts: tasks students do, content resources and support

LDLite 5 elements: tutor roles, student roles, content resources, service resources and assessment/feedback

Patterns a way of capturing knowledge from designers and sharing them with practitioners. Consists of pattern name, context for the pattern, description of the problem, solution, examples and links to related patterns

Pg. 13 Conole et al. 2007 explain that practitioners use f arrange of tools to support and guide their practice Conole, Oliver, M., Falconer, I., Littlejohn , A. and Harvey, J. (2007) designing for learning in Conole and Oliver ps 101-120 Oxon: Routledge

MoD4L conducted focus groups concluded that no one single representation is adequate

Pg 14

1.     Pedagogical models – academic literature

2.     Generic learning designs – patterns and generic LDVS

3.     Contextulaised learning design instantiations – LDVS, LDLite and E2ML

4.     Executable runnable versions – IMS LD, LAMS

Falconer and Littlejohn 2008 Representing models of practice

Pg 20 Three challenges facing teachers: increasing size and diversity of student body, increasing requirement for quality assurance and rapid pace of technological change

Pg 21 little evidence that education has changed fundamentally

Pg 22 representations teachers use: module plan, case study, briefing document, pattern overview, contents table, concept map, learning design sequence, story board, lesson plan

Pg 23 Challenges of developing and using representations

Ownership of representations, different representations effective for different communities, number of different purposes a representation needs to fulfil

Issues from the focus groups: community and purpose, product vs. process, granularity and characterising representations

Pg 26 Purpose: be generic, detail sequence and orchestration and inspire teachers to implement them and hence change practice

Pg 29 Product vs. Purpose

Pg 30 most common level of granularity a lesson plan of 1-3 hrs

Pg 49 IMS LD Method – specifies the teaching-learning process, roles of learners and teachers, activities, environments – resources and services, conditions,

Garzotto, F. and retails, S. (2008), A critical perspective on design patterns for e-learning, pg 113

‘A design pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment and then describes the core of the solution to that problem in such a way that you can use this solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice, Alexander et al., 1977Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S. and Silverstein, M. (1977) Pattern languages: towns, buildings and construction, New York: Oxford University Press

pg 114 Eleaning design experience is often shared informally in the everyday language of teaching practice

pg 119 concept of design patterns also applied to software engineering

pg 120 Design patterns in e-learning Pointer project,html


TELL http://cosy.ted.unipi/gr/tell

Pg 121 A taxonomy for elearning design patterns: patterns about human actors, patterns about pedagogical strategies, patterns about learning resources and patterns about technological tools and services

Pg 144 Frizell, S.S. and Hubscher, R. Using design patterns to support e-learning design

Pg 147 three main benefits of design patterns 1. They serve as a design tool, 2. Provide concise and accurate communication among designers, 3. Disseminate expert knowledge to novices

Pg 156 design framework for elearning patterns: design for interactivity, provide problem-solving activities, encourage student participation, encourage student expression, provide multiple perspectives on content, provide multiple representations of data, include authentic content and activities, provide structure to the learning process, give feedback and guidance, provide support aides

Goodyear, P. and Yang, D.F. Patterns and pattern languages in educational design, pg 167

Pg 168 Educational design is the set of practices involved in constructing representations of how to support learning in particular cases

Pg 170 educational design takes time it rarely starts with a clear complete conception of what is desired. The process of iterative clarification of the nature of the problem and its solution involves complex thought.

Pg 173 Pedagogical Patterns Project (PPP) worked on 4 pattern languages: active learning, feedback, experiential learning and gaining different perspectives.

Issue with patterns is that if they are too abstract they lack insight whereas if they are too specific they are not transferable

Pg 209 Masterman, E. Activity theory and the design of pedagogical planning tools

Pg 210 lack of uptake of technologies due to a number of factors: lack of awareness of the possibilities, technophobia, lack of time to explore the technology, aversion to the risks inherent in experimentation and fear of being supplanted by the computer.

Pg 211 Designing for learning – the process by which teachers – and others involved in the support of learning – arrive at a plan or structure or design for a learning situation (Beetham and Sharpe, 2007: 7).

Beetham and sharpe – learning can never be wholly designed, only designed for (ie planned in advance) with an awareness of the contingent nature of learning as it actually takes place (2007: 8)

Activity theory 212 an activity to work on some sort of object and transform it into an outcome. In a learning session the object is the learning session being designed for and the outcome is the pedagogical plan

Activity system consists of the object and the outcome, the human subjects, mediated by two types of tools – technical tools which mediate physical actions and psychological tools which mediate cognitive actions. The learning designs are psychological tools for helping teachers to think about their practice in new ways. Social dimension of an activity means it is carried out in a community which has a set of rules and division of labour. Rules include curriculum, timetabling and procedures for booking IT facilities. Division of labour determines how the task is segmented among the subjects and the other members of the community. An activity is constantly changing and developing in expansive cycles.

Pg 223 Phoebe pedagogic planner was designed as a tool that could propagate the principles of effective practice to as wide an audience as possible by allowing them to develop new pedagogical approaches while still using the planning tools that they were familiar with.

Pg 228 Harper, B and Oliver, R. Developing a taxonomy for learning designs

Pg 230 there has been little work to provide a means to classify and categorise learning designs

Over 50 exemplar learning designs were gathered in the AUTC Learning Design project. These were evaluated using an adapted version of the framework developed by Boud and Prosser (2002) Appraising new technologies for learning: a framework for development, Educational Media Internationals, 39 (3/4).

1.     Learner engagement

2.     Acknowledgement of the learning context

3.     Learner challenge

4.     The provision of practice

Types of learning design

1.     Rule focus – based on the application of rules

2.     Incident focus – based on incidents and events

3.     Strategy focus – that require strategic thinking, planning and activity

4.     Role focus – where the learning outcomes are based on learners’ performance and personal experiences


Oliver and herrington (2001) describe three aspects of a design: content or resources the learners interact with, the tasks or activities that the learners are required to perform and the support mechanisms to provided to assist learners to engage with the tasks and resources.


Types of exemplars:

1.     Collaborative focus

2.     Concept/procedure development focus

3.     Problem based learning focus

4.     Project/case study focus

5.     Role play focus

Kearney, M., Prescott, A. and Young, K. pg 263 Investigating prospective teachers as learning design authors

Pg 264 teachers often struggle to implement theory into practice Fang, 1996 A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices, Educational Research, 38(1), 47-65













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