Review: Botturi and Stubbs, 2008

Hohanson, B., Miller, C. and Hooper, S., pg. 1 -17 Commodity, firmness, and delight: four modes of instructional design practice

Pg. 6 Instructional design is guided by a range of theories and ideas, beliefs and assumptions, not the least of which is a perception of our own practice

Pg. 7 Vitruvius advocated that architecture design must satisfy three discrete requirements: firmitas (strength – construction and physical soundness of the building. How media is used and how technology is applied to a solution), utilitas (utility – functional use and appropriateness, application of instructional methods, use of sound instructional theories and the structuring of the interface design) and vernustas (beauty – aesthetic or beauty of the architecture, affective aspects and the complete learning experience).

Pg. 19 A design language is what designers use to communicate designs, plans and intentions to each other and to the produces of their artifacts Gibbons and Brewer, 2005: 113)

Understanding visual representations is a learned skill Rose, G. 2001 Visual methodologies: An introduction to the interpretation of visual materials, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publications

Stubbs, S.T. and Gibbons, A.S. The power of design drawing in other design fields

Pg 35

In ID, visual representations serve two purposes. 1) used during design as part of the design process to represent some aspect of instruction before it had to be produced or represented. May be in the form of storyboards or flow charts 2) part of the content that is being produced.

Pg 37 Design drawing aids the designer by reducing cognitive load during the design process. Because design sketched are an external representation, they augment memory and support informational processing. Tversky, B (2002), What do sketches say about thinking? (AAAI technical report, SS-02-08), Stanford University

Pg 37 Another view of drawing is similar to Vygotsky’s description of the relationship of language to thought. Substituting drawing for words, Vygotky says: ‘Thought is not merely expressed in (drawings), it comes into existence through them.’

Pg 38 Languages in general provide advantages particularly useful in design. 1. They allow thought to be communicated so that good ideas don’t get lost, 2. They provide a focus of attention that permits higher-power processing and anchoring of thought and 3. They provide the ability to question and judge the value of the thought – to construct thoughts about thought. Jackendoff, R. (1996) The architecture of the language faculty, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Stages of design

1.     Sketches to try ideas out

2.     As design progresses the drawings become more formal, more governed by rules and conventions

Pg 41 Design drawings can be categorised by their form and purpose. Massironi, 2002 taxonomy of graphic productions. Distinction between representional (physical reality) and non-representional (abstract concepts) drawings.

McKim types of abstract graphic languages: venn diagrams, organisation charts, flow charts, link-node diagrams, bar charts and graphs, schematic diagrams and pattern languages.

Laseau 1986: bubble diagrams, area diagrams, matrices and networks

Pg 56 Visual languages serve several purposes 1. Communicate a message through a visual or functional language, 2. Provide a synthetic idea, image or metaphor of complex ideas, 3. Create a grammar or produce meaning for its use.

Pg 112 Botturi, L. E2ML A tool for sketching instructional design

Two types of languages 1. Finalist communicative languages – serve the purpose of representing a complete instructional design for communicating it to others for implementation, reuse or simply archival 2. Representative – help designers think about the instruction they are designing and support its creation. Ability to express an idea, allows people to better analyse and understand it and to make better design decisions.

Pg 381 Agostinho, S., Harper, B., Oliver, R., Hedberg, J. and Wills, S. A visual learning deisgn representation to facilitate dissemination and reuse of innovative pedagogical strategies in university teaching

P381 Uptake of the use of high quality ICT-based learning designs in HE has been slow. Factors include low levels of dissemination of ICT-based learning projects, lack of ICT-based learning examples to model, barriers: lack of time, support and training.

Pg 382 Oliver and Herrington three elements that comprise an learning design

1.     The tasks or activities learners are required to undertake

2.     The content resources provided to help learners complete the tasks

3.     The support mechanisms provided to assist learners to engage with the tasks and resources

Quality criteria

1.     Engage learners by considering their prior knowledge and building on their experience

2.     Acknowledge the learning context by considering how the learning experience is positioned in the broader program of study

3.     Challenge learners through active participation

4.     Encourage learners to practice or apply their learning through articulating and disseminating their understanding to themselves and their peers


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