Archive for the ‘General’ Category

Good practice in PhD writing

Tuesday, November 13th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-11-13-at-102008.png

Image source

I have been reading and examining a lot of PhDs recently (4 in as many weeks!) and this has got me to reflect on some principles of good practice. Doing a PhD is a significant undertaking and dominates the person’s life for a number of years, so it is important that this adventure isn’t taken lightly. Chosen a good supervisor is vital, their role is to guide you and keep you on track, it’s all too easy to go down blind alleys, it is important to remain focused on your core research questions.

I always advise my students to keep an ongoing bibliography of references and for each reference to summarise the main points and indicate how the reference might be used in the thesis. It is a good idea to keep references in referencing software, such as Endnote, Zotero or Mendeley. Write as you go along and stick to a standard structure such as: introduction (setting the scene, explaining why the focus is important, an indication of the contribution to the field and research questions), literature review and explanation of key terms, methodology (data collection and analysis), findings, discussion, conclusions and suggestions for further research. The THES provides a useful set of tips for writing a PhD. 

At times you will be daunted by the scale of the mountain ahead of you but don’t give up! People are productive at different times of the day, some like working in the morning, others at night, reflect on what your preference is.  Therefore at points in the day you will be more productive, use this time to focus on your data analysis or writing of chapters, at other times you will be less productive, focus on routine tasks such as ensuring references are in the correct format.

A PhD is a major achievement, I always ask candidates at the end of the viva, did they enjoy the viva? And usually they say yes. I also point out that it is the only time in your research career when two people will have thoroughly read your research ;-)

The ABC Learning Design Workshop

Tuesday, November 13th, 2018

abc_workshop.jpg

Mark Glynn (who heads up our Teaching Enhancement Unit) and colleagues are involved in an Eramis+ project, ABC Learning Design. Last Thursday I attended one of the project’s workshops. I was aware of the ABC work and have recently written something about it for a chapter in Helen Beetham and Rhona Sharpes 3rd Edition of Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age, along with a number of other Learning Design frameworks. The workshop was run by Clive Young and Natasa Perovic from University College London. ABC is designed to be a ‘light touch’ approach to design. The workshop was two hours, consisting of a half hour introduction followed by 90 minutes of activities. The aim was to create a visual storyboard, made of a sequence of learning activities. The learning activities are based on the taxonomy developed by Diana Laurillard as part of her well known Conversational Framework.

The first task was, focusing on a module or programme, to agree a ‘tweet-size’ description of the course. We then drew a rough shape of the project against Laurillard’s learning activities:

  • Acquisition: Learning through acquisition is what learners are doing when they are listening to a lecture or podcast, reading from books or websites or watching demos or videos.
  • Collaboration: Learning through collaboration embraces mainly discussion, practice and production. Building on investigations and acquisition it is about taking part in the process of knowledge building.
  • Discussion: Learning through discussion requires the learner to articulate their ideas and questions, and to challenge and respond to the ideas and questions from the teacher, and/or their peers.
  • Investigation: Learning through investigation guides the learner to explore, compare and critique the texts, documents and resources that reflect the concepts and ideas being taught.
  • Practice: Learning through practice enables the learner to adapt their actions to the task goal and use the feedback to improve their next action. Feedback may come from self-reflection, from peers, from the teacher, or from the activity itself, if it shows them how to improve the result of their action in relation to the goal.
  • Production: Learning through production is the way the teacher motivates the learner to consolidate what they have learned by articulating their current conceptual understanding and how they used it in practice.

Then we indicated to what extent the course was face-to-face or online.

abc_graph.png

Next we added the various learning activity postcards to the timeline of the course. On the back of each of the six types of learning activities are examples of how these can be realized either through conventional activities or online activities. We ticked which of these we thought were appropriate. Then we used silver and gold stars to indicate which activities were formative or summative. Finally we returned to the graph drawn at the beginning and re-drew in relation to our chosen activities.

I was amazed at how much we managed to achieve in 90 minutes. As a team we had an excellent discussion and it was interesting to hear the other team’s thoughts on their design process. I particularly liked the ‘tweet’ of the module as it really gets you to think about what the essence of the course is.

An excellent set of resources associated with the project are available online, well worth a look.

The future of education: design, literacies and digital technologies

Friday, October 26th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-10-26-at-094939.png

Today I am doing a keynote at University College North, Aalborg, Denmark. This is timely as along with Mark Brown and Miroslav Beblavy (from CEPS) I am involved in an EU-commissioned report on best practices in the use of digital technologies and the future of education in Europe. It’s been a long time in the making and is particularly challenging as we are focusing on literature post 2016, but the end is now in sight!

The report focuses on the following questions:

  • How does digital technology enhance teaching and learning?
  • What are the enablers for successful digital technology use in school education?
  • What are the implications for policy and transformative curriculum reforms in terms of harnessing the potential of digital technology in schools?

To answer these questions, we developed a theoretical lens which consisted of six aspects:

  • Mismatch between rhetoric and reality
  • Good teachers matter most
  • Technology is not a static or single entity
  • Traditional modes of instruction and assessment dominate
  • Competing and co-existing drivers
  • Many factors mediate success

Clearly digital technologies enable teachers and learners to interact with rich multimedia resources and a variety of ways to communicate and collaborate. They have the potential to support innovative pedagogical approaches and to offer learners an engaging and motivational learning environment. Free resources and courses are challenging traditional educational offerings. However, there is a gap between the promise of technology and the reality of how it is being used. Institutions and practitioners are reluctant to change, and traditional teaching and assessment practices prevail. No matter how good the design and the match of pedagogy to technologies, the teachers’ role is still central, teachers matter most. Today’s educational landscape is complicated and dynamic, and we have a kaleidoscope of evolution technologies with a myriad of affordances. Traditional modes of instruction and assessment still dominate; institutions and practitioners are reluctant to change. The reasons for limited progress are complex and there are many competing and co-existing drivers for the adoption of digital technologies in schools ranging from serving narrow vocational ends, preparing children for a different future and to more broadly promote better educational outcomes for students. it is difficult to establish direct causal relationships between pedagogy and technology interventions, many situational factors mediating success and the risks of drawing causal inferences.

Today’s digital society is complex and dynamic. A key facet is that we are preparing learners for an uncertain future, to do jobs that don’t even exist today. Some argue that 65% of jobs of the future don’t exist now. Therefore, it is important that we enable learners to develop higher order competencies (such as critical thinking and problem solving) rather than focusing on knowledge recall. There is much hype around the concept of the ‘Millennial generation’; such as the fact that this generation have grown up in a digital world and have different needs and expectations. A recent Open Universities Australia report I was involved in coined the phrase IWWIWWIWI (I Want What I Want When I Want IT) to encapsulate the nature of todays’ learners. Although this generation are digital savvy, they don’t necessarily know how to use digital technologies for academic purposes.

The presentation concludes by cautioning against the hype discourse around the use of digital technologies in education. The following examples are provided.

  • 65% of future jobs don’t exists – debunked. There are too many overly positivist accounts of the potential of technologies, which do not take account of the nuances and complexities of the educational landscape. Much ‘research’ lacks credibility and is not build on empirical evidence.
  • The much hyped ‘Millennial generation’ discourse has recently been discredited
  • There is an uncritical adoption of popular teaching and learning ‘catchisms’, and Selwyn provides a nice paper on the claims and counterclaims.

The slides for the keynote are on sendspace, comments welcome!

A new start

Tuesday, September 4th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-09-04-at-172532.png

So as of yesterday I am officially Professor/Head of Open Education in
the National Institute for Digital Learning at Dublin City University.
There has been a lot to organise in advance. Getting my PPS number
(which was very stressful), securing a flat (perfect location, tiny
but nice) and of course bringing all the stuff I will need over from
the UK. My initial two days have involved finding my feet and meeting
people, as well as an outline from the Director, Mark Brown, of the
kinds of things I will lead on or be involved with over the next few
months. It was particularly nice to meet with members of the Open
Education Unit yesterday and I plan one to one meetings with each of
them over the coming months. Technology wise I am almost set up. I
have a DCU email account, a new laptop and an Irish phone. This is one
of the busiest times of the year as the university gears up for the
arrival of the new students. An important event associated with this
is the Welcome day for our Open Education/DCU Connect students on
Saturday 29th September. I’m really looking forward to meeting the new
students!

Ar aghaidh agus os a chionn!

Farewell to a lovely person…

Wednesday, August 8th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-08-08-at-131624.png

 

I was very sorry to hear today of the death of Ingeborg Boe. She was a leading light in the field of e-learning and a lovely woman and she will be sorely missed by our community. I have many fond memories of her, she was always cheerful and smilie. Her son wrote a lovely tribute to her on facebook.  She had suffered with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is a progressive, fatal neuromuscular disease that slowly robs the body of it’s ability to walk, speak, swallow and breathe. Her son asked that rather than send flowers, people might like to make a donation here. The picture is one I took of Ingeborg at the EFQUEL conference in Granada in 2012. She was actively involved in both EFQUEL and the EDEN communities. My thoughts are with her family at this difficult time.

All change…

Tuesday, July 17th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-07-17-at-092450.png

Image source

I have really enjoyed doing consultancy over the past couple of years, lots of interesting and varied work with clients from Ireland to Australia! I have also been lucky enough to be involved in a range of fascinating e-learning projects over the years, but I am keen now to take up a position where my expertise can make a difference in practice. I have always seen the consultancy work as something of a transition phase until something I really wanted to do came along… and it has!

In September I take up a new position as head and professor of the Open Education Unit, located in the National Institute for Digital Learning (NIDL) at Dublin City University (DCU). I have been a visiting professor with NIDL for a number of years and have been very impressed with how the Institute has developed and blossomed. The post will entail working with the NIDL team and the faculties to expand online provision through the University’s DCU ConnectEd platform. In addition to the Open Education Unit, NIDL has two other units; the Ideas Lab and the Teaching Enhancement Unit. Each of the units has distinct areas of interest:

 

The Open Education Unit focus is to support the design, delivery and effective management of distinctive and transformative online learning experiences for online distance students. DCU has a long history of opening up access to higher education through distance provision and I’m really looking forward to building on this tradition in working with the Open Education team.

 

The Teaching Enhancement Unit focus is to support the design, development and evaluation of distinctive and transformative professional learning experiences for staff. Helping DCU staff harness the potential of blended learning for campus-based students is a major aspect of the TEU’s work.

 

The Ideas Lab focus is to support the design, development and research of new and emerging models of blended, online and digital (BOLD) education with the potential to help transform lives and societies. Notably this year the Ideas Lab has led DCU’s Irish Language and Culture MOOCs on the FutureLearn platform which I’m told have attracted over 20,000 learners from more than 120 countries.

 

I’m very much looking forward to working with others in NIDL and staff across the University to build on DCU’s already substantial presence in digital learning. My new role will also provide an exciting opportunity to contribute to NIDL’s growing research programme and support planning and preparations for next year’s ICDE World Conference on Online Learning which DCU is hosting in November.

 

Le gach dea ghui

 

Pros and cons of EdTech

Tuesday, June 26th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-06-26-at-141515.png Image source

Got an interesting email about a guide to the pros and cons of educational technology, which apparently builds on my blog post on this topic from sometime back. Some of the benefits of using technology in the classroom include:

  • Making learning more fun
  • Personalising the education experience
  • Instant access to knowledge
  • Facilitates collaboration amongst peers
  • Reflects the real world of work
  • Can make things easier for teachers

Some of the downsides include:

  • Lack of support
  • Extra cost
  • A source of distraction
  • Health concerns
  • Not inclusive

Mapping tools to types of activity

Tuesday, May 15th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-05-15-at-134622.png

Image source 

 

As part of a three-day CLICKS workshop on Learning Design I created a new section on tools to support diferent types of activities. I classified them as tools to support the following types of activities:

  • Presentation
  • Communication
  • Collaboration
  • Brainstorming and concept mapping
  • Reflection
  • Feedback
  • Assessment
  • Recording
  • Voting
  • Annotation
  • Curation
  • File sharing

Table 1 lists examples of tools under each category. I also provided tips and hints for ensuring these tools are well used. For presentations I suggested the following. Include an outline for the talk. Keep text short. Add a relevant image with a URL to the source. Use bitly/com to shorten URLs. Use an appropriate background so there is a contrast with the text. Check spelling and grammar. Have a logical structure and a clear message. Include a summary and if relevant include references.  

 

For supporting effective moderation I suggested the following. Have a clear introduction. Avoid questions that are likely to lead to yes/no answers.  Guide the discussion and summarise at key points and encourage reflection. Keep an eye on back channels. Keep to time and consider recording key points.

 

Collaboration is about working with others to achieve a common goal, with a shared vision and purpose. I suggested the following as the benefits of working collaboratively. Firstly, it is important to have clear communication, with trust and respect. Secondly, it is useful to assign roles and have a clear division of labour.

 

I listed the following as the benefits of brainstorming and concept mapping. Firstly, it is useful as a way of generating ideas on a topic. Secondly, it can be done individually or as a group. Thirdly, it is a way of building on the ideas of others. Fourthly, ideas can be grouped. Finally it is a way of generating solutions to a problem.

 

Thinking about and reflecting on what you have learnt is known to be an important aspect of learning; I suggested the following benefits of reflection. An online journal or blog can be to collect ideas and thoughts. It is a mechanism to relate new concepts to prior experiences, and a means of critically evaluating of the learning experience. It can lead to the development of an action plan.

 

There are four types of feedback: diagnostic, formative, summative and peer review. Benefits include the fact that it can help learners understand and gives them guidance on how to improve their learning. It is also a mechanism to have evidence of achievement of learning outcomes, leading to accreditation.

 

Recording can bring resources to life; audio and video can enhance the text. Students can listen/watch numerous times, can stop and rewind and can take notes. Video can be used to provide a welcoming message or to demonstrate something. Audio can be used to record a lecture or to provide personalised feedback.

 

Another way of introducing interactivity is by using vorting or response tools. These can be used to check class understanding, to provide formative feedback, to check students’ preparation for a class, or can be used to stimulate debate. Arguably they not only make lectures more interactive, but also to enhance learning and motivation. Feedback from students can be used to adapt content to meet their particular needs.

 

Annotation is a powerful tool for enably deeper and more active forms of reading, which is likely to result in more knowledge being retained. Students can add questions, comments, links, and keywords, and can highlight text.

 

The amount of information available on the web is bewildering. Curation is a good way of dealing with this. It is possible to co-located related resources and these can be shared with others.

 

Finally, file sharing tools can be used to share resources with specific people or make them available to anyone with a link. Some tools enable you to see how many people have viewed or downloaded resources. File sharing means that the resources can be accessed from anyway and is a good means of backup.  

 

Table Summary of how tools can be used to support different types of activities

Type of activity

Tools

Presentation

PowerPoint

Facebook live

Prezi

Google drive and classroom

Google slides

YouTube

TedEd

Communication

Skype

Twitter

WhatsApp

Tlk.io

Flipgrid

Google sheets

Collaboration

Kanban Trello

Google wiki

Brainstorming and concept mapping

Linoit

Padlet

Mindomo

coogle

Reflection

Wordpress

EduBlogger

Feedback

Annotated word files

Audio feedback

Assessment

E-portfolios: word, google drive, dropbox, pathbrite

Recording

iPhone

Audacity

Voicethread

Screen-o-matic

Voting

Facebook poll

Easypolls

Polleverywhere

Survey monkey

Kahoot

Annotation

Diigo

A.nnotate

Curation

Scoop.it

Pinterist

File sharing

Drop box

Slideshare

Google drive

 

Table 2 maps various tools to the 7Cs of Learning Design.

Table 2: Mapping the 7Cs to activities and tools

7Cs

Activity

Tools

Conceptualise

How to ruin a course

Linoit

Padlet

Mindomo

coggle

Personas

Word

Google drive

Create

Find and collate resources

Scoop.it

Pinterist

Diigo

Create resources

Powerpoint

Prezi

Google slides

YouTube

TedEd

iPhone audio or video

Audacity

Voicethread

Screen-o-matic

File sharing

Google drive or classroom

Dropbox

Slideshare

Communicate

Teacher-student(s)

Students- students

Students – broader community

Skype

Twitter

WhatsApp

Tlk-io

Google sheets

Collaborate

Joint project work

Group work management

Working up ideas

WhatsApp

Kanban Trello

Google wiki

Linoit

Padlet

Mindomo

coggle

Consider

Reflection

Wordpress or Edublogger

Feedback

Skype

Annotated word file

Audio feedback

A.nnotate

Voting

Facebook poll

Easypolls

Polleverywhere

Survey monkey

Combine

Activity profile

Complete the excel spreadsheet and take a picture of it

 

Storyboard

Powerpoint

Complete on a flipchart and take a picture of it

Consolidate

Feedback from learners

Easypolls

Polleverywhere

 

 

Tools for different types of activities

Wednesday, May 9th, 2018

Mapping 7 cs_to activities_and_tools from Grainne Conole

As part of my workshop I developed a hand out on tools for different types of activities.

The future of education

Tuesday, March 13th, 2018

screen-shot-2018-03-13-at-121149.png

 

I recently did a really interesting piece of work for the Open Universities Australia looking at key future trends in education. The piece was part of a larger report, which has just been released. Donna Gallagher was the lead on the project. My section focused on four key topics that are likely to shape the education sector in the next five years. The topics were:

  • The future of work and the skills needed.
  • How the needs of new consumers may change education.
  • Whether universities are accommodating the needs of older consumers in terms of their continuing education and the new skills and workflows they need to develop that will be relevant to them professionally and socially.
  • How blockchain technology will impact on the market in terms of transportability of qualifications, how will blockchain impact the market.

The intended audience is academics at all levels within a university and professional university staff such as course coordinators and learning developers. This evidence-based report will enable OUA to develop its portfolio strategy ensuring that it is built on a foundation of knowledge about the broader educational and societal context it operates in.

 

Future of work

By 2030 automation (robotics and Artificial Intelligence), globalisation and flexibility will change what we do in every job.[1] As technology reduces the need for workers to complete routine, manual tasks they will spend more time focusing on people, solving more strategic problems and thinking creatively. Digital talent platforms[2] have the potential to improve the ways workers and jobs are matched. Many employers say they cannot find enough workers with the skills they need.[3] This is particularly problematic in the IT and STEM industries.

 

Traditional, linear career trajectories are rapidly becoming antiquated. Digital technologies are creating new opportunities; in terms of digitization of: assets, operations and the workforce. These changes have a number of implications. Firstly, many activities that workers are carrying out today have the potential to be automated. Secondly, digital technologies offer a potential threat but also potential opportunities. Thirdly, we are teaching leaners for an uncertain future to do jobs that don’t even exist today. These raise a number of issues. Firstly, what skills are needed in the future and are universities addressing future requirements? Secondly, how should we design and deliver courses to meet these future needs? We need to move beyond knowledge recall to teaching learners the skills and capabilities they need to be lifelong learners, skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, communication and team work.[5] 

Deloitte has introduced a fully customized, interactive, game-based assessment as part of their application process.[6] The focus is on simulating real-life work scenarios that applicants can expect to encounter at Deloitte. The approach demonstrates that Deloitte recognizes that the next generation is technology savvy and expects more active and personalized learning experiences.

 

IWWIWWIWI

Learners are increasingly demanding, and want personalized and flexible learning opportunities and have been referred to as the I Want What I Want When I Want It (IWWIWWIWI) generation. This raises the question of how universities can ensure that they are meeting these needs. There is a dichotomy in that university education is becoming more expensive and at the same time information is more ubiquitous.[7] Many are arguing that we do not need a degree to acquire the knowledge and creativity required to be successful and gain meaningful employment.

New initiatives are arising to address this such as ‘uncollege’, which aims to help learners identify areas of interest and to accelerate their learning.[9] It is a social movement that aims to change the notion that going to college is the only path to success. Furthermore, we are seeing an unbundling of education.[10] Learners increasingly do not want to do full three-year degrees; they want bite size chunks of learning. They may choose to pay for: i) quality assured learning materials, ii) learning support, iii) a guided learning pathway, or iv) accreditation. Universities need to shift from offering a specific one-time experience to providing lifelong opportunities to enable learners to acquire skills useful across multiple careers.[11] Different learners will have different needs and will therefore choose different components. In addition, learners are increasingly mixing formal educational offering with free materials and courses, available through Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). As a result new forms of recognition of learning and accreditation are emerging, such as digital badges, certificates of participation/completion, and Accreditation of Prior Learning (APEL). The OpenCred project provides a summary of these.[12] It articulates a number of factors associated with non-formal learning (identity verification, supervised assessment, quality assurance, etc.).

 

Digital apprenticeships are an interesting new development in vocational Higher Education.[13] Degree apprenticeships combine university study and workplace learning to enable apprentices to gain a full bachelor’s or master’s degree. An apprentice has full-time employment status rather than student status, and receives at least an apprentice’s minimum wage. Degree apprenticeships are co-designed by employers ensuring that apprentices are equipped with the skills employers need and boost their employment prospects. Degree apprentices do not pay for training costs or student fees and are not eligible for student loans.

 

Changing ageing

We live in an increasingly ageing society.[14] People are more likely to have multiple careers and hence need to become lifelong learners to adapt to changing circumstances and develop new skills.[15] Furthermore, many choose to retire early, take part-time work, or be self-employed; prioritizing their work/life balance. Lifelong learning is important for a number of reasons. Firstly, educational investments are an economic imperative and on going learning and skills development is essential to surviving economic and technological disruption. Secondly, learning is positive for health. Research has shown, for example, that learning to play a new instrument can offset cognitive decline, and learning difficult new skills in older age is associated with improved memory. Thirdly, being open and curious has profound personal and professional benefits. Fourthly, our capacity for learning is a cornerstone of human flourishing and motivation.[16] Melbourne University have announced an initiative to offer lifelong learning opportunities for professionals across all academic areas for people at all stages of their career. Providing a rationale for the initiative, the Vice Chancellor stated that ‘radical developments in the technology landscape, primarily associated with the rise of the internet and associated digital media and tools, have opened up new possibilities in the provision of, participation in, and access to, education’.[18] A range of delivery models are being used, including campus-based intensive, online-learning and custom modes of delivery.

 

Transportability of credentials

To support more flexible career pathways and lifelong learning, opportunities for learning need to be available from a variety of formal, informal and non-formal settings. As mentioned earlier digital badges and certificates of participation/completion are increasingly being used to recognize learning in non-formal and informal contexts. Trying to collate learning across these different spaces is challenging. Blockchain education is being heralded by many as the next big thing in education.[19] A blockchain can be described as a digital ledge. Or more succinctly:

 

The blockchain is a distributed database that provides an unalterable, (semi-)public record of digital transactions. Each block aggregates a timestamped batch of transactions to be included in the ledger – or rather, in the blockchain. Each block is identified by a cryptographic signature. These blocks are all back-linked; that is, they refer to the signature of the previous block in the chain, and that chain can be traced all the way back to the very first block created. As such, the blockchain contains an un-editable record of all the transactions made.[20]

 

EduCoin was an education-oriented cryptocurrency. It aimed to help students, educators and third parties make secure transactions without fees, rates or long approval times. Blockchain startups are exploring things like identity management and smart contracts. In terms of education, one of the benefits of blockchains is the notion of ‘learning is earning’. The ledger tracks everything someone has learned in units called EduBlocks, each represents a number of hours of learning but it is also possible to earn them from individuals or groups.  A key benefit of the blockchain is that it can be used to better manage assessment, credentials and transcripts.

A number of institutions are exploring blockchains, including: the MIT Media Lab, the University of Nicosia, the OU UK and Holberton School.[22] The distributed, decentralised nature of blockchains is perceived as providing opportunities to disrupt traditional products and services, along with the permanence of the blockchain record and the ability to run smart contracts. The advantages of blockchains include: self-sovereignty, trust, transparency/provenance, immutability, disintermediation, and collaboration. Although still in their infancy, the implications include: accelerating the end of paper-based certificates, allowing users to automatically verify the validity of certificates, and give users ownership.

Conclusion

The four topics considered represent some of the key changes and associated challenges that are likely to impact on education in the near future. They demonstrate that we are operating in a complex, changing and dynamic context, with education offerings across a spectrum from free resources and courses through to traditional formal educational offerings. To meet future needs learners need to develop new skills and competences, along with digital and academic skills to become lifelong learners, enabling them to take control of both their chosen learning pathways and collation of accreditation to demonstrate their achievement of learning outcomes. Traditional educational institutions need to radically change to meet these needs. They will need to develop a more flexible and agile portfolio of offerings that are targeted at the specific needs of different learners from the IWWIWWIWI generation through to older learners. They will need to consider what is distinctive about their learner experience in a world of information abundance and free resources and courses.

 



 

[1] https://www.fya.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/FYA_TheNewWorkSmarts_July2017.pdf

 

[2] Connect individuals with work opportunities, examples include LinkedIn and Monster.com

 

[3] https://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/employment-and-growth/technology-jobs-and-the-future-of-work

 

[4] https://www.slideshare.net/Incisive_Events/jacob-morgan-the-future-of-work

 

[5] https://www.curriculum.org/secretariat/files/Sept30TLConfronting.pdf

 

[6] https://www.accountantsdaily.com.au/professional-development/8935-deloitte-reinvents-graduate-recruitment-process

 

[7] http://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/lisa-portolan/to-what-degree-will-universities-be-relevant-in-future_a_22125822/

 

[8] https://disruptivedigital.wordpress.com/multi-channel-engagement-platforms/

 

[9] https://www.uncollege.org/

 

[10] http://e4innovation.com/?p=952

 

[11]https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/store

 

[12] http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC96968/lfna27660enn.pdf

 

[13] http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/policy-and-analysis/reports/downloads/FutureGrowthDegreeApprenticeships.pdf

 

[14] https://www.ageing.ox.ac.uk/files/Future_of_Ageing_Report.pdf

 

[15] https://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21714169-technological-change-demands-stronger-and-more-continuous-connections-between-education

 

[16] https://hbr.org/2017/02/lifelong-learning-is-good-for-your-health-your-wallet-and-your-social-life

 

[17] https://www.slideshare.net/damom7/keeping-in-touch-tablets-use-by-older-adults

 

[18] http://campusmorningmail.com.au/news/another-davis-innovation-at-the-university-of-melbourne/?utm_campaign=website&utm_source=sendgrid.com&utm_medium=email

 

[19] http://www.youareoxygen.com/2017/11/08/blockchain-hype-hope/

 

[20] http://hackeducation.com/2016/04/07/blockchain-education-guide

 

[21] http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC108255/jrc108255_blockchain_in_education%281%29.pdf

 

[22] http://hackeducation.com/2016/04/07/blockchain-education-guide